Definition

Pelvic pain can happen between the belly button and the hips and groin. Long-term (chronic) pelvic pain is pain that lasts for 6 months or more.

Problems in any of the organs, soft tissues, intestines, nerves, bladder, or muscles can cause pelvic pain. Structures in the reproductive organs can also cause pain.

Female Pelvic Organs

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Causes

Many problems can cause pelvic pain:

Conditions like depression, can also increase feelings of pain or cause pain with normal action.

For some, the cause of the pain is not clear.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your risk of pain include:

Symptoms

Pain can be different in each person. It may include:

  • A constant pain or dull ache in the pelvic area
  • Burning, shooting pain
  • Urgent need to pass stool
  • Pain that comes and goes
  • Pain that ranges from mild to severe
  • Pain with certain activities
  • Pain with lengthy sitting

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. You may be asked to keep a pain diary. Write down when your pain happens, how it feels, and how long it lasts.

Your body's fluids may be tested. This can be done with:

  • Blood and urine tests
  • Cultures and swabs
  • Tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

Images of your body structures may be needed. This can be done with x-rays and ultrasound.

Minimally invasive surgeries may also be done to examine the area.

Treatment

If the cause is known, it will be treated. This may include counseling, medication, and/or surgery.

Pain management can help with pain that does not respond to treatment or pain with no clear cause. Options include:

Medicine may help manage some pain. You and your doctor will work to find a dose that will decrease the risk of side effects. Options may include:

  • Prescription pain medicine for severe pain
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may help manage pain and reduce inflammation.
  • Hormones for pain of the reproductive system.
  • Antidepressants and anti-seizure medications to help manage certain types of chronic pain.

Severe pain that affects daily activity may need a nerve block. An anesthesia medicine is injected near the nerve that signals. This blocks the pain for a short time.

Therapies that may help manage pain include:

  • Relaxation therapy—tension can increase feelings of pain
  • Acupuncture
  • Biofeedback—to teach your body how to react to pain

Counseling can help manage chronic pain. Stress and tension can increase feelings of pain. Unhealthy thought patterns can also develop which can make it harder to manage pain. Counseling can help you form healthy thought patterns, and teach you relaxation and coping methods. This therapy may reduce feelings of pain and its impact on your life.

Prevention

Preventing chronic pelvic pain depends on what is causing it. You may not be able to prevent some causes.